Monday, November 29, 2004

Belafonte, Harry

Belafonte's parents were emigrants from the Caribbean islands of Martinique and Jamaica, and he lived with his mother during her 1935–40 return to Jamaica. He left high school to serve in the U.S. Navy in the mid-1940s; after returning to New York City he studied


David Green, Queen Anne (1970); Edward Gregg, Queen Anne (1980).

Sunday, November 28, 2004


A gold telluride mineral (AuTe2) that is a member of the krennerite group of sulfides and perhaps a structurally altered form (paramorph) of krennerite (q.v.); it generally contains some silver replacing gold. Calaverite is most commonly found in veins that have formed at low temperatures, as in sites at Kalgoorlie, Australia; Cripple Creek, Colo.; and Calaveras county, Calif.,

Saturday, November 27, 2004


City, Brevard county, east-central Florida, U.S. It lies on the Intracoastal Waterway along the Indian River (a lagoon separated from the Atlantic Ocean by barrier islands), about 60 miles (95 km) southeast of Orlando. The site, originally known as Crane Creek, was settled in 1878, and the community was soon renamed for Melbourne, Australia, the one-time home of the community's first postmaster,

Friday, November 26, 2004

New Bern

City, seat (1722) of Craven county, eastern North Carolina, U.S. It lies at the confluence of the Neuse and Trent Rivers, about 35 miles (55 km) northeast of Jacksonville. The second oldest town in North Carolina, New Bern was settled in 1710 by Freiherr (baron) Christophe von Graffenried of Bern, Switzerland. It was incorporated in 1723 after near destruction by Native Americans. Colonial North

Bohemond I

The son of Robert Guiscard (the Astute) and his first wife, Alberada, Bohemond was christened Marc but nicknamed after a legendary giant named Bohemond. The nickname proved well taken because physically Bohemond was the ideally

Wednesday, November 24, 2004


German  League of Princes  league founded on July 23, 1785, under the leadership of King Frederick II the Great of Prussia to preserve the status quo among the several German states and curb the ambitions in Germany of the Holy Roman emperor Joseph II. It represented the final phase of the conflict between Frederick and the Austrian Habsburgs. Earlier, Frederick had thwarted Joseph's plan to annex


Chinese  (Wade–Giles romanization) Ha-erh-pin,  Pinyin  Haerbin,   second largest city of Northeast China and capital of Heilungkiang Province (sheng), on the Sungari River. The city owes its origin to the construction of the Chinese Eastern Railway by the Russians at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century. Before 1896 it was a small fishing village. Thereafter it became the construction centre for the railway, which by 1904 linked

Music, Western, Modification and expansion of older forms

Dance pairs of the Renaissance grew, about the middle of the 17th century, into dance suites consisting basically of four dances: allemande, courante, saraband, and gigue, with optional dances such as the gavotte, the bourrée, and the minuet sometimes inserted before the final movement. Variation forms—the chaconne (in which a set of harmonies or a bass theme is continuously

Tuesday, November 23, 2004

Acheampong, Ignatius Kutu

Ghanaian army officer, who, after leading a military revolt that overthrew the government of Kofi Busia, became Ghana's chief of state in 1972. In July 1978 he was forced to resign, and the following June he and his successor, Lieut. Gen. F.W.K. Akuffo, were executed after a coup led by young officers, whose Armed Forces Revolutionary Council returned

Monday, November 22, 2004

Molay, Jacques De

Molay entered the order in 1265, fought in Syria, and after 1291 was at Cyprus.

Sunday, November 21, 2004

Terauchi Masatake, Count (hakushaku)

He was born into a family of retainers of the Choshu clan and originally was named Tada Jusaburo. Masatake changed his name when he was adopted into the Terauchi family during his youth. He entered the military at the age of 12 and became

Polar Coordinates

System of locating points in a plane with reference to a fixed point (origin) and an axis through that point. The coordinates are written (r,q), in which r is the distance from the origin to any desired point and q is the angle made by the vector r and the axis. A simple relationship exists between Cartesian coordinates given in terms of two reference axes (x,y) and the polar coordinates

Saturday, November 20, 2004


Ancient region at the eastern end of the Black Sea south of the Caucasus, in the western part of modern Georgia. It consisted of the valley of the Phasis (modern Riuni) River. In Greek mythology Colchis was the home of Medea and the destination of the Argonauts, a land of fabulous wealth and the domain of sorcery. Historically, Colchis was colonized by Milesian Greeks to


Ancient West Semitic benevolent deity. His name may possibly be translated as “Spirit of Healing.” He was often represented as a youthful, beardless male, standing on a lion above mountains, wearing a long, trailing garment and a pointed headdress, and holding a small lion in one hand and, perhaps, a whip in the other. In representations from Palmyra, Shadrafa is shown with

Friday, November 19, 2004

Paper Folding

In Japan, origami has reached its greatest development, with hundreds of traditional folds and an extensive literature dealing with the art. Japanese folds divide roughly into two categories:

Pigneau De Béhaine, Pierre-joseph-georges

Pigneau de Béhaine left France in 1765 and went to establish a seminary in southern Vietnam, then known as Cochinchina. He arrived at Ha Tien, near the Cambodian frontier,

Bulb Rot

Widespread disease that can infect all flower and crop bulbs and is caused by a variety of fungi and a few bacteria. Shoots fail to emerge or leaves are stunted, yellow to reddish or purplish, and they later wilt and die; roots, usually few, are discoloured and decayed. The rot often starts at the bulb base (root plate), progressing upward and outward. Fungal rots are usually

Wednesday, November 17, 2004


Mainly rainforest cultivators

Cohens V. Virginia

(1821), U.S. Supreme Court case in which the court reaffirmed its right to review all state court judgments in cases arising under the federal Constitution or a law of the United States. The Judiciary Act of 1789 provided for mandatory Supreme Court review of the final judgments of the highest court of any state in cases “where is drawn in question the validity of a treaty or statute

Atmosphere, Transition to an aerobic environment

Pyrite and uraninite are minerals of iron and uranium, respectively, that are not stable in the presence of O2. Though they can be found in some modern river sediments, neither can survive in them for thousands of years. Yet, many sediments older than about 2,200,000,000 years contain well-rounded grains of these minerals. Their shapes and locations indicate prolonged exposure and

Tuesday, November 16, 2004



Monday, November 15, 2004

Fibre, Man-made, Cellulose-based polymers

In unaltered native cellulose, X represents hydrogen, forming a number of pendant hydroxyl (OH) groups. Hydroxyl groups, like amides, are capable of forming hydrogen

Sunday, November 14, 2004

Aspar, Flavius Ardaburius

Aspar led an East Roman fleet in 431 to expel the Vandals from Africa, but he was defeated and was forced to withdraw in 434, in which year he served as consul. Although Aspar fought the Persians successfully in 441, the Huns under Attila triumphed over him outside

Latter Rain Revival

Early name for the Pentecostal movement within U.S. Protestantism; it began in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Tennessee and North Carolina and took its name from the “latter rain” referred to in Joel 2:23. The Bible passage states that the former (fall) rain and latter (spring) rain were poured down from God. These rains marked the beginning and end of the Jewish harvest.

Saturday, November 13, 2004


Any member of a continuous series of feldspar minerals related to sanidine (q.v.).

Friday, November 12, 2004

Walker, Alice

Walker was the eighth child of African American sharecroppers. While growing up she was accidentally blinded in one eye, and her mother gave her a typewriter,

Henry Viii

King of England (1509–47), who presided over the beginnings of the English Renaissance and the English Reformation. His six wives were, successively, Catherine of Aragon (the mother of the future queen Mary I), Anne Boleyn (the mother of the future queen Elizabeth I), Jane Seymour (the mother of Henry's successor, Edward VI), Anne of Cleves, Catherine


Formerly  Trengganu,   traditional region of northeastern West Malaysia (Malaya), bounded by those of Kelantan (north and northwest) and Pahang (south and southwest). It has a 200-mile- (320-kilometre-) long coastline along the South China Sea (east). Terengganu is mentioned in 1365 as a vassal of the Javanese kingdom of Majapahit. The sultanate of Terengganu, ruled by members of the same family since 1701, was under

Thursday, November 11, 2004

Interior Design, Furniture and accessories

To the layman, furniture is the most important aspect of interior design. It is a significant component of design to the professional as well, since it is the most personal and intimate product relating man to a building. It is also personal because it can be moved from one home to the next and handed on from generation to generation, and often furniture takes on important


Former princely state of south-central India, founded by Nizam-ul-Mulk (Mir Qamar-ud-Din), who was intermittently viceroy of the Deccan under the Mughal emperors from 1713 to 1721 and who resumed the post again under the title Asaf Jah in 1724, at which time he became virtually independent. He founded the dynasty of the Nizams of Hyderabad. The British and the French participated in the wars of succession

Wednesday, November 10, 2004

Farmer–labor Party

An offshoot, the National Farmer–Labor Party, nominated P.P. Christensen in the 1920 presidential election. Lacking adequate finances and organization, the party won few votes and expired in 1923.

Memory Abnormality, Hysterical amnesia

Hysterical amnesia is of two main types. One involves the failure to recall particular past events or those falling within a particular period of the patient's life. This is essentially retrograde amnesia but it does not appear to depend upon an actual brain disorder, past or present. In the second type there is failure to register—and, accordingly, later to

Monday, November 08, 2004

Mountain, Mechanisms that support elevated terrains

In terms of strength, the lithosphere, the thickness of which varies over the face of the


Also called  Patagonian Cypress  (species Fitzroya cupressoides), coniferous tree that is the only species of the genus Fitzroya, of the cypress family (Cupressaceae), native to southern Chile and southern Argentina. In the wild it grows to become one of the oldest and largest trees in the world. The alerce is thought to be a southern relative of the giant sequoia of North America. The oldest known alerce

Africanus, Sextus Julius

His life is not well documented, but evidence indicates that Africanus traveled considerably in Asia, Egypt, and Italy and later lived chiefly at Emmaus, in Palestine, where he served as prefect. He was named regional ambassador to Rome about 222, when he became a protégé of the emperor Severus


A genus of 30 or more species of cycads (family Cycadaceae), small, stocky, fern-like plants native to tropical and subtropical America. They have a turniplike, mostly underground stem that in some species reaches 3 m (10 feet) or more in height. A starchy food is obtained from the crushed roots and stems of certain species, among them coontie, or comfortroot (Z. floridana), found in

Saturday, November 06, 2004

Alberta, Relief and drainage

Along the southwest border, Mount Columbia (12,294 feet [3,747 metres]) is the highest of 26 magnificent peaks reaching above 11,000 feet. Beyond the narrow foothills, soft rocks form an undulating plateau falling from over 3,000 feet to under 1,000 feet in the northeast, where the ancient rocks of the Precambrian shield outcrop. Outliers of higher ground include the Cypress and Swan hills and the Caribou


Hebrew  She'elot U-teshubot  (“questions and answers”), replies made by rabbinic scholars in answer to submitted questions about Jewish law. These replies began to be written in the 6th century after final redaction of the Talmud and are still being formulated. Estimates of the total number of published responsa, which range in length from a few words to lengthy monographs and compendia, vary from


Russian  Amurskaya  oblast (province), far eastern Russia. It occupies the basins of the middle Amur River and its tributary the Zeya and extends up to the crest of the Stanovoy Range. In 1689 Russia yielded the Amur region to China by the Treaty of Nerchinsk, but Russian Cossacks reincorporated it in the latter part of the 19th century. Amur oblast was formed in 1932 from Khabarovsk kray (region), and its

Friday, November 05, 2004

Arts, Central Asian, The music of Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim

Little is presently known about the music of Nepal, Bhutan, and Sikkim. Minstrels play a major role in the musical life of Nepal, where, under the influence of Indian practice, musicians are classified according to caste and each group is distinguished by specific instruments and repertoire. There appears to be a great deal of both Indian-related and indigenous folk


One of the 30 soil groups in the classification system of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). Durisols are soils in semiarid environments that have a substantial layer of silica within 1 metre (39 inches) of the land surface. The silica occurs either as weakly cemented nodules or as hardpan and accumulates as a result of downward translocation (migration) when solubilized

China, The development of the Republic (1912–20)

The first half of the 20th century saw the gradual disintegration of the old order in China and the turbulent preparation for a new society. Foreign political philosophies undermined the traditional governmental system, nationalism became the strongest activating force, and civil wars and Japanese invasion tore the vast country and retarded its modernization.

Steely Dan

Named after a prosthetic phallus in William S. Burroughs's novel Naked

Wednesday, November 03, 2004

Jacques Cartier, Mount

French  Mont Jacques-cartier,  also called  Tabletop,   mountain on the north side of the Gaspé Peninsula in Gaspesian Provincial Park, eastern Quebec province, Canada. The highest peak in the well-forested Monts Chic-Choc (Shickshock Mountains), an extension of the Appalachians, is Mount Jacques Cartier, which has an elevation of 4,160 feet (1,268 m). The name Tabletop indicates its flat summit.


Greek poet from Gadara in Syria, who compiled the first large anthology of epigrams. This was the first of the collections that made up what is known as the Greek Anthology (q.v.). Meleager's collection contained poems by 50 writers and many by himself; an introductory poem compared each writer to a flower, and the whole was entitled Stephanos (“Garland”). Meleager's

Tuesday, November 02, 2004

Ringgold, Faith

Ringgold grew up in New York City's Harlem, and while still in high school she decided to be an artist. She attended City College of New York, where she received B.S. (1955) and M.A. (1959) degrees. In the mid-1950s she began teaching art in New York

Monday, November 01, 2004


Town, eastern Chad, between the wadis Chao and Sao. Historically it was the site of the capital of the Muslim sultanate of Ouaddaï (q.v.), which dominated much of the area of Chad before French conquest was accomplished in 1912. The remains of the ancient capital include a palace, tombs of former sultans, and the ruins of a mosque, all surrounded by a thick wall. The town has many

Ahmed Yesevi

Very little is known about his life, but legends indicate that his father died when the boy was young and his family moved to Yasi, where